杨开城， 刘 晗
【关 键 词 】：
协作学习； 问题解决； 扩展的FC知识图； DCR
协作学习的设计一直是个理论难题，我们不清楚协作学习的具体方案何以具有目标—手段一致性以及那些设计要素何以会转化为令人满意的协作活动。与DBR（Design Based Research）不同，DCR（Design Centered Research）关注的是知识收获。文章在DCR视野下，通过一项个案研究，初步确证了这样一组问题解决类协作学习的设计知识：（1）协作学习的设计方案由任务呈现、协作过程、成果呈现以及过程支架组成；（2）扩展的FC知识图不但可以用来设计问题，还可以用来设计协作过程的支架，是检查目标—手段一致性的重要工具。为了确证上述知识，本个案研究初次采用学习过程机制图来表征真实发生的协作过程。学习过程机制图主要用来判断协作学习方案中的那些设计要素是否转化为令人满意的协作活动。
The design of collaborative learning is always a theoretical problem. We don't know how to make a high consistency of means and objectives in a specific plan of collaborative learning and whether that plan can be transformed into a satisfactory learning activity. Contrast ot DBR (Design- based Research), DCR (Design-centered Research) focuses on attainment of knowledge. From the prospective of DCR, this paper introduces a case study that, by using mechanism diagrams of learning procedures for the first time to represent the actual collaborative process, preliminarily validates the design knowledge of problem-solving collaborative learning. The design knowledge includes(1) that the design plan of collaborative learning consists of task presentation, collaborative process, outcome presentation and processing scaffolding, and (2) that the extended knowledge diagram of FC(Facts and Cases) can be used to design both problems and scaffoldings in the process of collaborative learning, which serves as an important tool for testing the consistency of means and objectives. The mechanism diagram of learning procedure is mainly used to ascertain whether the elements in the plan of collaborative learning have been transformed into satisfactory collaborative learning activities or not .