【关 键 词 】：
大数据； 精准教学； 最近发展区； 智慧学伴； 个性化学习
Normal teaching usually only focuses on the differences of learners' existing abilities and ignores their development potential, which makes it difficult to teach students according to their aptitude. Vygotsky has proposed the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development, which addresses the relationship between teaching and development and leads to dynamic ability assessment. However, to assess the Zone of Proximal Development requires the acquisition of a large amount of learners' data as support. In traditional teaching, due to the lack of data collection and analysis tools in learning process, it is difficult to effectively evaluate learners' Zone of Proximal Development and then to support precision teaching. Using big data technology to effectively collect and analyze learners' online learning data provides technical support for diagnosing the Zone of Proximal Development and promoting precision teaching. This paper proposes a presentation model of the zone of proximal development in the process of learners' understanding of subject concepts. In combination with the theory of dynamic ability assessment, the development interval and cognitive states of learners' competence performance in different competence dimensions are calculated based on the unified coding system of subject accomplishment, competence performance and core concept. Based on the front-line teaching practice , this paper summarizes the main steps of precision teaching based on the zone of proximal development, in order to provide reference for the practice and research of teaching based on big data analysis and improvement.